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Kesteven moot siteFrom around the tenth century until the nineteenth century Barrowby was in the wapentake of Winnibriggs and Threo (or Threw). Most of the administrative functions of the wapentake had been lost to other local units of government by 1832.
In the 1830s the combined wapentake included part of the town of Grantham, although the Soke of Grantham was usually designated separately. Also included were the parishes of Allington (East and West), Barrowby, Boothby Pagnell, Braceby, Colsterworth, Great Ponton, Heydor, Honington, Humby, Little Humby, Little Ponton, North Stoke, Ropsley, Sapperton, Sedgebrook, Somerby, South Stoke, Spittlegate, Stoke, Stroxton, Syston, Welby, Wilsford, Woolsthorpe, and Wyville cum Hungerton. Most of these settlements appear in the Domesday Book as part of Winnibriggs and Threo wapentake.
When English counties were first created around the end of the tenth or early eleventh centuries typically a number of wapentakes (also known as 'hundreds') were combined to create each county. County boundaries typically followed pre-existing wapentake boundaries (although there were later changes, principally in the 1890s and 1974). However Lincolnshire was too extensive for this to work. Instead the county was originally split into three Parts: Lindsey, Kesteven and Holland. Subsequently these three Parts have been subdivided into the current administrative districts of Boston, Lincoln, South Holland, North Kesteven, South Kesteven, East Lindsey and West Lindsey.
Winnibriggs and Threo was in the Parts of Kesteven. There is no clear evidence as to why the name was Winnibriggs and Threo. As a result it is difficult to speculate where the wapentake met for administrative purposes.
Identifying moot sites
Such administrative meetings were usually known as 'moots' – a word which evolves into modern English 'meeting'. Until at least the thirteen century these meetings took place outdoors at a suitable, usually central, location.
The moot site for Kesteven has not been located. But there are some clues and 'expectations'.
When the original Goscote Hundred split into East and West Goscote Hundreds (perhaps in the early thirteenth century) the moot site for the East Goscote Hundred was on a parish boundary. The location is marked by a five-sided standing stone inscribed with the words 'Moody Bush'. This stone is clearly the successor the the 'moot bush', with the word 'moot' corrupted to 'moody'. The local landowner still convened court leets at the stone in the late eighteenth century.
The views from the Moody Bush Stone extend beyond the edges of the Hundred in all directions except to the north; however by walking a couple of hundred yards northwards the view originally opened up (although a barn and modern hedges now make it difficult, though not impossible, to see northwards).
The Moody Bush Stone. Despite appearances, the name is not because cows come up to it and say 'moo'.
Middle: Looking east towards Billsdon Coplow.
Above: Looking south-west across the Soar valley with Charnwood Forest in the distance.
Kesteven moot site
So far as I am aware no one has proposed a location for the Kesteven moot site. However, there is a location in Kesteven which is central. And just south of a Roman town. And on the crossing of Roman roads. And in the smaller 'wedge' of the crossroads is woodland. The OS Grid Reference is SK979422.
Duke's Covert. Top: In the 1950s. Above: In the 1880s.
However the name, 'Duke's Covert', suggests the current woodland may only date from the late eighteenth century when fox hunting became fashionable. But the thin soils barely covering the limestone suggest that this land was of little agricultural use and likely to have been wooded in the past. A mid-twentieth century OS map suggests the area was not wooded at that time, so the modern trees are more recent than the 1950s.
Allowing for modern changes to the landscape – which include Barkston Heath RAF base to the south-west – and the inevitable modern trees and hedges then views away from Duke's Covert are extensive.
Duke's Covert is in Wilsford parish, right at the boundary with Ancaster parish. Indeed the parish boundary 'dog legs' to include Duke's Covert, rather than following the more obvious course of the southern boundary of the Covert (see 1880s map). Was Duke's Covert once extra-parochial?
The covert is located at the summit of a broad hill, known as Copper Hill. The limestone geology makes it most unlikely for this to be a place where copper was extracted. More realistically 'Copper' is a corruption of the Old Scandinavian word kaup which is usually translated as 'merchant' but has the original sense of 'to pay' – an activity which was likely to be part of the administrative activities at medieval moots. Kaup enters English as 'chapman' (a trader) and 'Cheapside' (a common name for rows of shops). Copper Hill would be ideal for seasonal fairs as well as for administrative moots. Indeed the two functions are far from mutually exclusive as those attending the moots would be 'well-heeled' and make excellent customers for 'chapmen'.
While there seems no way to 'prove' that Copper Hill was once the site of the Kesteven Moot, the available evidence presents a strong case with numerous parallels. I would be interested to hear from anyone who thinks there is better evidence for a different location.
How to find Duke's Covert
Follow the B6403 (a.k.a. High Dyke a.k.a. Ermine Street) towards Ancaster. Duke's Covert is immediately after RAF Barkston Heath, just before the disused tank advertising the paintball and outdoor activities centre.
Ancaster's Roman name
Ancaster has traditionally been identified as Causennis or CausennŠ, as this name appears as a town on the route of Iter V in the Antonine Itinerary. However the name Causennis more probably refers to either Salters Ford or Sapperton, both of which originated as Roman settlements. This means the Romans' name for Ancaster is not known.
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Articles about BarrowbyBarrowby's location and geology
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Articles and web links for nearby places
rare seventeenth fonts at Muston, Bottesford and Orston from Project Gargoyle Newsletter 2020
Ironstone quarries of Leicestershire
The Grantham Canal
Croxton Kerrial manor house excavations